Marketing mix

What is the marketing mix?

The marketing mix was first developed by Neil Borden, an American marketing researcher, in the 1950s. Borden described the marketing mix as a combination of marketing tools that a company uses to market its product or service.

Later, Jerome McCarthy refined Borden’s idea and developed the concept of the 4 Ps in the marketing mix: product, price, promotion, and placement. This concept was adopted by many companies in the 1960s and has served as the basis for developing marketing strategies ever since.

Since then, the Marketing Mix has continued to evolve and various approaches and additions have been added, such as the expansion to seven marketing tools (Product, Price, Promotion, Placement, Process, People and Physical Evidence). Today, the mix is a fundamental tool in the field of marketing and helps companies align their marketing strategies and successfully achieve their marketing goals.

What marketing tools does the marketing mix include?

The four P’s in the marketing mix stand for product, price, promotion and placement. Product refers to what the company offers, while price refers to the amount a customer must pay for the product. Promotion refers to how the company advertises the product, and placement refers to how the product is made available to the customer. Together, these four elements form the basis of a successful marketing strategy by ensuring that the product meets the needs and wants of the customer, is competitive and is marketed effectively.

What are the four marketing tools in the marketing mix?

Marketing mix with 4Ps. Product, Price, Promotion and Place and examples of possible actions.
Figure 1: Marketing Mix (4P’s).

Product Policy (Product):
Product refers to what the company offers. This is about designing the product or service to meet the needs and wants of the customers. Factors such as the quality, design and packaging of the product must also be considered. In particular, the product life cycle plays a hugely important role in product strategy planning.

Pricing (Price):
Price is the amount a customer has to pay for the product. Here, the company must find the right price to both generate profits and remain competitive. Factors such as discounts, promotions, and payment terms must also be considered in the pricing strategy.

Communication policy (promotion):
Promotion refers to the way the company advertises the product or service – that is, the communication channels. The aim here is to appeal to the target group and convince them to buy the product. Various advertising media are used, such as TV commercials, ads, posters, PR or online marketing.

Distribution policy (Place):
Placement refers to the way the product is made available to the customer. This is about finding the right distribution channel and the right distribution partners to get the product to the customer. Factors such as the availability and presentation of the product at the point of sale must also be taken into account.

What are the seven marketing tools in the marketing mix?

Marketing mix with 7Ps. Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Process, Physical Evidence and Personnel and examples of possible actions.
Figure 2: Marketing Mix (7P’s)

There are several approaches to defining the marketing mix. The basic four elements are often expanded to seven marketing tools. These, in addition to the previously mentioned elements, are as follows:

Process Policy (Process): The process the customer goes through to purchase the product or service, including ordering, payment, delivery, and return.

Personnel Policy (People): The people who work for the company and interact directly with customers, including training, motivation, and appearance.

Equipment Policy (Physical Evidence): The physical evidence the company provides for its product or service, including store design, brand image, and quality of materials.

These seven marketing tools ensure that a company develops and implements a successful marketing strategy that is aligned with the needs and wants of its customers or end users and remains competitive.

Why is the marketing mix important?

The marketing mix is an essential tool for companies to develop and implement a successful marketing strategy. Here are some aspects of why it is so important:

Clarity: the mix model helps companies define and implement their marketing strategy in a clear and understandable way. It gives them a structure and a roadmap that allows them to align their marketing activities as well as achieve their goals more effectively.

Target group orientation: The marketing mix tools help companies to align their marketing activities with the needs and wishes of their target group. By taking into account customer needs in the areas of product, price, promotion and placement, it can ensure that it successfully addresses its target group.

Competitiveness: the model helps to remain competitive by allowing companies to adapt their marketing strategy to changing market conditions and the needs of their customers. Constantly reviewing the marketing mix can ensure that they are always up to date and maintain their competitive advantage.

Profitability: 5P Marketing or 7P Marketing helps companies maximize their profitability by allowing them to focus their marketing efforts on the most impactful and profitable areas. Optimizing the marketing mix can ensure that companies use their budget wisely and achieve the best possible results.


In conclusion, marketing mix helps companies align their marketing activities, effectively reach their target audience and remain competitive, ultimately leading to higher profitability.


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